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Taliban Arms Management Practices
with Ashley Jackson and Maiwand; 2023, Small Arms Survey / Centre on Armed Groups

Since taking control of Afghanistan in August 2021, the Taliban have attempted to monitor and control small arms at the national level. They have not, however, developed any major new policies on these areas. Instead, the Taliban have continued to use the existing policies and procedures implemented under the previous Government of the Republic of Afghanistan, making modifications as needed. The Taliban’s capacity to control and manage stockpiles has increased over time, with weapons in the major bases largely kept secure. Personal connections, however, trump rules and procedures: influential commanders can often obtain weapons without following formal approval procedures. An additional challenge for the Taliban is that many commanders refuse to register weapons they possessed before August 2021. Commanders and fighters generally view such weapons as personal property, rather than that of the Taliban or the state. Power dynamics within the Taliban at the subnational level shape the management of weapons, which varies considerably from province to province. While the Taliban can act in a unified manner in certain circumstances, its central authorities tend to leave much of the day-to-day running of affairs to the local officials— both for political reasons and due to capacity issues.


Smuggling: Image and Reality
with Max Gallien; 2022, Welternährung / Welthungerhilfe

While smuggling has captured the imagination of painters, screenwriters and policymakers, its reality often looks more diverse. What are we missing, and what can we learn from it?


Klischee und Realität: Warum wir Schmuggel besser verstehen müssen (German)
with Max Gallien; 2022, Welternährung / Welthungerhilfe

Das Phänomen inspiriert Maler wie Filmemacher und beschäftigt die Politik. In der Realität kann Schmuggel konfliktträchtig sein – und überlebenswichtig.


Book – The Routledge Handbook of Smuggling 
with Max Gallien; 2021, Routledge


Schmuggel im 21. Jahrhundert (German)
with Max Gallien; 2021, Internationale Politik, Special 05/2021

Bis heute gelten Schmuggel und Schattenhandel als ­etwas, das im Verborgenen vor sich geht und sich in ­unzugänglichen Grenzgebieten abspielt. Doch solche Sichtweisen blenden vor allem die enge Verzahnung mit legalen Wirtschafts- und Finanzstrukturen aus.


Channeling contraband – how states shape international smuggling routes
with Max Gallien; 2021, Security Studies, 30(1), pp.79-106

While smuggling is commonly assumed to happen in remote and difficult to access borderlands, in reality, smuggling is most prevalent in areas that are tightly controlled by the state, including at formal border crossings. To understand this puzzle, the article explores the relationship between states and smugglers at international borders. Based on extensive empirical research in various borderlands in North Africa and Southeast Asia, it argues that different types of relationships with the state are preferred by different kinds of smugglers. The article outlines six ideal types of such relationships. It argues that these types of relationships are the dominant factor in how different smuggling networks choose routes along a border. The findings have implications for our understanding of smuggling and policies that aim at addressing smuggling, especially with regard to the effects of border fortifications and corruption prevention.


Book – Conflict and Transnational Crime: Borders, Bullets & Business in Southeast Asia
2020, Edward Elgar